Pragmatics is like the social intelligence of language. It deals with how language is used in real-life situations and how context influences communication. Just as knowing when to use formal or informal language is crucial in social interactions, pragmatics helps us understand the unspoken rules of language use.
Pragmatics focuses on speech acts, which are the actions performed through language. Every time we speak, we are not just conveying information but also performing various speech acts, such as making requests, giving commands, asking questions, making promises, apologizing, etc.
Examples of Speech Acts:
Request: “Can you pass me the salt, please?”
Command: “Close the door.”
Question: “Where are you going?”
Promise: “I will help you with your homework.”
Apology: “I’m sorry for being late.”
Pragmatics involves adhering to Grice’s Maxims, which are principles of conversation proposed by philosopher H.P. Grice.
These maxims guide effective communication and include:
Maxim of Quantity: Provide enough information, neither too much nor too little.
Maxim of Quality: Be truthful and only share information you believe to be true.
Maxim of Relation: Be relevant and stick to the topic of conversation.
Maxim of Manner: Be clear, brief, and orderly in your communication.
Implicature is like the hidden meaning behind words. It refers to the inferred meaning or intention conveyed by a speaker that goes beyond the literal meaning of the words used.
Example of Implicature:
If someone asks, “Do you have any plans for the weekend?” and you respond, “I have a lot of work to do,” the implicature may be that you are not available for social activities.
Pragmatics recognizes the importance of context in communication. The meaning of a sentence may change based on the social setting, relationship between the speakers, and shared knowledge.
Example of Speech Context:
If you say, “It’s cold in here,” the meaning can change depending on whether you say it while shivering outside on a winter day or while stepping into a hot sauna.